By Prof. Asoc. Dr. Ilir Kalemaj
The role of international actors and factors has impacted in different levels the countries of Eastern Europe that emerged from the communist rule. Part of the reasons are different political cultures of CEE countries, different shapes of communist regimes that range from authoritarian Poland and post-totalitarian Hungary to totalitarian Albania, as well as different transition trajectories in post-communist period. The relative independence of institutions, guarantees of rule of law and other checks in the system also tell us a lot about the shape of democracies in these countries and if they have consolidated. Another important dimension is the economic reforms and how successful they have been to help make the full transition toward a consolidated market economy, able to thrive and resist global and EU market pressures. While there is a considerable body of literature and much scholarship written in the role and impact of internationals in transition processes of post-communist Eastern Europe, the impact of international actors and factors in economic development has often been overlooked and received scarce attention and even more so if we consider a critical perspective on the issue. This is the gap that specifically this paper addresses by focusing at Albania as an archetypical case that can help us better understand the shifts in the post-communist development models.
Keywords: Internationals, economic aid, development, Albania
The link where the article can be read in full: https://tiranaobservatory.com/2021/12/01/how-internationals-have-impacted-albanias-economic-transition/