E-mail: aidahasanpapa@unyt.edu.al

Office Hours: Tuesdays 11:00-14:00

 Course Description

This course examines the development of diplomacy, as a practice of peaceful conduct of foreign relations between states as actors in the international system. The students will discover how such conduct was practiced in a historical perspective. Reviewing large periods of time, the course starts by outlining early diplomatic contacts between states of ancient civilizations, continues with the diplomatic relations of late antique and medieval empires and proceeds with the evolution of the international system to modernity from the Treaty of Westphalia (1648)) and 1789 (the French Revolution) to the destruction of the Berlin Wall in 1989.

The main bulk of the course covers a period of two centuries during which the diplomatic scene of Europe was transformed drastically. The 19th century saw the ancien regime of the previous century come under continuous pressure from nationalism as the European modern state system evolved. The First World War led to the collapse of three empires in Europe and to the expansion of the European nation-state system. However, the system remained unstable eventually drifting into the Second World War. World War II brought about massive destruction and precipitated political changes in Europe as an iron curtain divided Europe into two blocs symbolized by the Berlin Wall. This division and the ensuing Cold War deeply affected European diplomacy and divided the world into two political blocs with a freshly decolonized world caught in between. A fragile strategic balance guarded by nuclear weapons deterred the two sides from precipitating yet another world war. Yet, the world outside Europe experienced considerable violence, instability and underdevelopment while in Western Europe the project of European integration steadily progressed.

Learning Objectives

By the end of the course students are expected to:

  • Have acquired knowledge of major developments in diplomatic history from antiquity to the collapse of the bipolar system / the end of Cold War;
  • Be able to discuss, analyse and evaluate the formal and substantive aspects of diplomatic relations in a critical fashion and beyond a mere quotation of dates, places, and personalities using appropriate terminology;
  • Demonstrate a greater understanding of what shaped diplomatic relations throughout Modern Times; and
  • Demonstrate contextualized awareness of critical theories in understanding international relations.


Cognitive / Intellectual Skills

  • Analyse key diplomatic events and developments using a variety of primary and secondary sources;
  • Synthesize information from different primary and secondary sources;
  • Evaluate the reliability of their sources; and
  • Apply basic historical methodological tools to new, unknown sources.


Key / Transferrable Skills

  • The ability to work effectively with others as a member of a group within the given time constraints;
  • An ability to evaluate own strengths and weaknesses within criteria set by others; and
  • An ability to apply with limited autonomy, under direction or supervision, learned tools and methods carefully and accurately to a well-defined new problem, within defined guidelines.


Course Requirements:

Mid-term exam                                    30 %

Term Paper and presentation               40 %

Literature Presentation                         20 %

Attendance & Participation                  10 %


 Grading Scale:

Letter Grade Percent (%) Generally Accepted Meaning
      A 96-100 Outstanding work
      A- 90-95
      B+ 87-89 Good work, distinctly above average
      B 83-86
      B- 80-82
      C+ 77-79 Acceptable work
      C 73-76
      C- 70-72
      D+ 67-69 Work that is significantly below average
      D 63-66
      D- 60-62
      F 0-59 Work that does not meet minimum standards for passing the course


The Readings and Lectures:

One of the objectives of this course is to get you to think critically about the purposes, objectives, and practices of diplomacy by introducing you to some of the issues debated by diplomatic historians.  When you read the course books, try not to get lost in the details and pay attention to the overall argument and main ideas of the author.  (These overarching ideas will become the focus of our in-class discussions!)  Since there is no single “textbook” for the course, lectures will provide important context and historical background for understanding the history of diplomatic relations.  It is therefore vital that you attend lecture!



Discussion is an integral part of the course.  Your participation (and attendance) in discussion section counts for a sizable portion of your grade!


Textbooks: Students will be provided a course pack, whose principal readings are from:


Andersen M. (1966), The Eastern Question 1774-1922, London: Macmillan.

Barston R.P. (2006), Modern Diplomacy, 3rd Edition, Delhi, India: Pearson.

Berridge, G. R. (2010),  Diplomacy: Theory and Practice, 4th edition, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bull H. (2002), The Anarchical Society: A study of Order in World Politics, 3rd edition, New York: Columbia University Press.

Buzan B. – Little R. (Jul. 1994), “The Idea of ‘International System: Theory Meets History”, International Political Science Review, v. 15/3, pp. 231-255.

Buzan B. – Little R. (2000), International Systems in World History: Remaking the Study of Int’l Relations, Oxford: OUP.

Chase-Dunn C. – Anderson E.N. [eds.] (2005), The Historical Evolution of World Systems, New York: Palgrave.

Gaddis J. (1997), We Know Now: Rethinking Cold War History, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hamilton, K. and Richard Langhorne (2010), The Practice of Diplomacy: Its Evolution, Theory and Administration, 2nd edition, New York: Routledge.

Hartmann A.V. – Heuser B [eds.] (2001), War, Peace and World Orders in European History, London & New York: Routledge.

Hattab A., The Foreign Diplomacy of Pharaohs, URL: http://www.sarab.fi/file/marhaba/2005/m05-s20-2.pdf, accessed on Febr. 24, 2012.

Kissinger H. (1994), Diplomacy, New York: Simon and Schuster.

de Souza P. – France J. [eds.] (2008), War and Peace in Ancient and Medieval History, Cambridge: CUP.

Stearns P.N. (2010), Globalization in World History, New York: Routledge.

Watson A. (1993), The Evolution of International Society, London: Routledge.


A substantial part of the course will cover the Cold War. A major project based on re-evaluating the Cold War through the archives of Soviet and East European countries have been undertaken in the United States. Interested students are invited to visit the web-site of this project at www.cwihp.si.edu and www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv. The Cold War is also extensively covered at: www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/. More Cold War documents from Russian archives translated into English can be found at www.millercenter.virginia.edu/.


Course Outline:

I 10/13 Course introduction, subjects, and requirements. Diplomacy, History and Diplomatic History. How to write the research paper. Materials for reflection: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUWJm3KOTU4
II 10/20 From the Beginning till 1815: The Old World! Hamilton and Langhorne, 1-90.
III 10/27 From 1815 to the present: From Old Diplomacy to Total Diplomacy. . .  Hamilton and Langhorne, 90-254.
IV 11/03 ORIGINS OF THE MODERN STATE SYSTEM: The French Revolution and the Concert of Europe. Kissinger, Chapter 3-4.
VIII 12/01  

Mid-term Exam!!


IX 12/15 NO CLASS on Dec 8: National Day of Youth


THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY AND GERMANY. REALPOLITIK AND THE ORIGINS OF THE WOPRLD WAR I: The success of Cavour and Bismarck. Realpolitik and Bismarckian diplomacy. Developments in European politics, 1871-1914. Kissinger, Chapters 5-10.Berridge, Chapters


X 12/22 Research Papers presentations. Barston, Chapters 70-149.
XI 01/05 WORLD WAR I AND PEACE SETTLEMENTS; THE ORIGINS OF WORLD WAR II: The Locarno Optimism. The rise of Mussolini and Hitler. Appeasement. The Spanish Civil War. Developments in the late 1930s. Kissinger, Chapters 11-13.
XII 01/12 WORLD WAR II AND ITS OUTCOME: Major developments during the war, the entry of the USA in the war. Impact of the war on Europe and the world. Origins of the Cold War.  Kissinger, Chapters 14-16.
XIII 01/19 COLD WAR AND THE WORLD OF DIPLOMACY: Gaddis, Chapters 3, 6.Berridge, Chps. 4-5, 7.
XIV 01/26 THE EVOLUTION OF THE COLD WAR: The Berlin and Cuba crises. European integration and the Cold War. Détente. Collapse of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and the end of communism in Eastern Europe. Kissinger, Chapters 23, 25-31.



FINAL EXAM WEEK: Final papers are due on Feb 5, 2015.



Term Paper and Presentation:

Students will write a term paper on a subject they choose, after consulting with the instructor. Topics suggested by the students are subject to approval and involve an oral in-class presentation. (See notes on plagiarism). Students are required submit an electronic form of their paper at www.turnitin.com. The 40% grade of the final paper is to be divided as follows: 1) A well-thought position paper = 30%; and 2) In-class presentation of the paper = 10%.


General Policies:

  • Regular attendance is expected.  If there is an urgent reason to be absent, please email the instructor in advance. A student may not enter an examination without having justified all of his/her absences.
  • There will be a 10% deduction for late assignments (up to 2 days only, thereafter no grade will be given) unless you make special arrangements with the instructor in advance via email communications.
  • Any violation of academic honesty principles, e.g. plagiarism or collusion, will result in an automatic F on the course, in line with UNYT’s Honour Code policies.
  • Make-up exams will be given only in the case of a confirmed medical excuse.  If possible, please advise the instructor in advance by email.


Please Note: STUDENTS: If you feel that you have special learning difficulties, please, see your advisor or arrange an appointment with the University’s Counselling Centre.

Faculty: Arts & Sciences.

Department: Humanities & S.Sc.

Grade: Undergraduate.

Majors: Humanities and Social Studies.

Study Fileds: Political Sciences International Relations.

Course Year: 2.

Course Program: UNYT.

Scheduele: FRI 10:00-13:00

Instructor: Hasanpapa Aida

Credits: 3

Prerequisite: Intro to International Relations